Our present over-developed centralism goes back to a bureaucratic style perfected in the 18th century for taxation and policing; a military style developed with the emergence of the nation-states for logistics and to wage war; an economic style dominated by abstract money-profits rather than specific uses and work-processes; and to a lesser degree a style of industry determined by large concentrations of machinery around steam prime-movers, cash-cropping, and enclosures.
These have produced over-capitalized and often inappropriate technology, an inflexible and insecure tightly interlocking economy, ignorant mass-consumption with a complicated standard of living of inferior quality, the development of sprawling urban areas rather than towns and cities, brain-washing mass communications, mass-democracy without real content, and mass-education that is both wasteful and regimenting.
With these, there is a prevalent superstition that no other method of organization could be more efficient or is even possible, and that in all functions the reasonable mode of operation is by "rationalization" (subdivision, standardization, cash-accounting). Because of the superstition and the inflexible organization, these beliefs are self-proving. No other kind of operation or administration is paid attention or subsidized; no research is