The issue of clothing and morality has almost always been associated with questions of female modesty and chastity. Costume historians have frequently asked, Do women dress to attract men? while ignoring the ample evidence that women dress as much for reasons of status as for sex appeal. Even when it is clear that women are dressing for an audience of other women, it is suggested that they are all rivals for male attention. But what is the reaction when the question is turned around: Do men dress to attract women? Presumably, heterosexual men want to look sexually attractive to women, but their primary goal, they say, is to look active, powerful, and rich. Furthermore, they are strongly inhibited by anxiety about appearing effeminate or, indeed, as a sex object at all. The male sex object is regarded with ambivalence and even disapproval. Only men regarded as ultra-masculine (such as baseball or football stars) can pose with impunity as centerfold models.
Men and women both report that there is a stigma attached to the man who looks too beautiful or ultra-fashionable. Heterosexu