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"Painters, Architects, Sculptors, you whom the bourgeoisie pays with high rewards for your work — out of vanity, snobbery, and boredom — Hear! To this money there clings the sweat and blood and nervous energy of thousands of poor hounded human beings — Hear! It is an unclean profit. . . . we must be true socialists — we must kindle the highest socialist virtue: the brotherhood of man."

So ran a manifesto of the Novembergruppe, which included [Lázló] Moholy-Nagy and other designers, who would later join [Walter] Gropius at the Bauhaus. Gropius was chairman of the Novembergruppe's Arbeitsrat für Kunst (Working Council for Art), which sought to bring all the arts together "under the wing of a great architecture," which would be "the business of the entire people." As everyone understood in 1919, the entire people was synonymous with the workers. "The intellectual bourgeois . . . has proved himself unfit to be the bearer of a German culture," said Gropius. "New, intellectually undeveloped levels of our people are rising from the depths. They are our chief hope."

Gropius' interest in "the proletariat" or "socialism" turned out to be no more than