Last week, Shadow of Diogenes posed the question: "Where did political correctness begin?"
Truth be told, I'm more interested in where and when it will end, but I poked around a bit, and here's a lecture by Bill Lind which traces it back to the postwar period, and not the war you probably thought, either:
Marxist theory said that when the general European war came (as it did come in Europe in 1914), the working class throughout Europe would rise up and overthrow their governments the bourgeois governments because the workers had more in common with each other across the national boundaries than they had in common with the bourgeoisie and the ruling class in their own country. Well, 1914 came and it didn't happen. Throughout Europe, workers rallied to their flag and happily marched off to fight each other. The Kaiser shook hands with the leaders of the Marxist Social Democratic Party in Germany and said there are no parties now, there are only Germans. And this happened in every country in Europe. So something was wrong.
And of course, it couldn't possibly be the theory itself:
In 1917, they finally got a Marxist coup in Russia and it looked like the theory was working, but it stalled again. It didn't spread and when attempts were made to spread immediately after the war, with the Spartacist uprising in Berlin, with the Bela Kun government in Hungary, with the Munich Soviet, the workers didn't support them.
Ultimately, though, Gramsci was to prove the more effective exponent of Marxism. His premise, seen at the time to be something of a departure from Marxism, proved to be an expansion instead: the standard Marxist dichotomy of oppressor and oppressed was extended and transmogrified, turning bad economics into bad sociology. From Gramsci's